Glossary inova-e

This site adopts a number of abbreviations and technical terms specific to the context of innovation and energy research. On this page, there is a list of the main terms used and a brief explanation of their meaning.

Public RD&D investment - Public RD&D investments are calculated based on reimbursable and non-reimbursable RD&D projects expenditures carried out through public institutions that foster innovation in Brazil. The statistics presented on this platform gathered data from the following federal agencies: BNDES, CNEN, CNPq, FINEP; and also from the state of São Paulo: FAPESP.

Publicly oriented investment in RD&D - Publicly oriented investments refer to private investment induced by public policies, being compulsory for companies in the energy sector. These are resources that fit into public programs whose purpose is to induce companies to invest in RD&D. Within the scope of this platform, publicly oriented investments refer to RD&D projects regulated by Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL) and National Agency for Petroleum, the Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP) agencies.

RD&D - research, development & demonstration.

Research and Development (R&D) - Represents creative work carried out systematically in order to increase the stock of knowledge. This consideration is based on concepts from the Frascati Manual that must be applied in relation to Research and Development, as shown below:

  • Basic research: Experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge based on observable phenomena and facts, without any particular application or use in view. (Frascati Manual, 240).
  • Applied research: Original research carried out with the aim of acquiring new knowledge. It is primarily aimed at a specific goal or objective. (Frascati Manual, 245).
  • Experimental development: Systematic work, based on existing knowledge obtained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed towards the production of new materials, products or devices, to install new processes, systems and services, or to improve substantially those already produced or installed. (Frascati Manual, 249).
  • Technical support services: indispensable services for the implementation and maintenance of facilities or equipment intended exclusively for carrying out research, development or technological innovation projects, as well as for training the human resources dedicated to them.

Demonstration - The design, construction and operation of a technology prototype on a commercial or quasi-commercial scale for the purpose of providing technical, economic and environmental information to industry, financiers, regulators and policy makers.

Nature of the investment - The nature of the investment can be public or private and refers to the origin of the investment, whether it is carried out with public capital (public investment) or private, respectively.

Type of investment - refers to the type of public investment, which may be non-refundable, subsidy, refundable.

Non-reimbursable investment - This is a project financing modality in which there is no provision for the return of funds to the institution. Most of these are resources directed to infrastructure and basic and applied research, and to research institutions such as universities and science and technology institutions (ICTs).

Subsidy - Non-reimbursable instrument aimed at supporting innovation in private companies, in strategic themes, defined through public calls, which can be signed directly with companies or through research support foundations.

Reimbursable investment - Contractual instrument for financing companies, through which the financed companies undertake to return the funds received, within the established period, with interest.

Fostering institution - Institution that directly finances a project or that supervises regulated projects in the energy sector.

Proposing agent - Agent (legal entity or individual) who proposes the RD&D project.

Executing agent - Agent (legal entity or individual) that implements the RD&D project (there may be more than one).

Energy technology - The concept of energy technology adopted in this study is the same adopted in the International Energy Agency Guide to Reporting Energy RD&D Budget/ Expenditure Statistics. This guide is a reference document and bring provide the classification and details of different technologies, covering various energy chains from primary resources to the final conversion processes into useful energy. Thus, energy technology refers to the set of techniques, processes, equipment and systems in a specific area of the energy sector. The structure and categories presented in the IEA Manual for monitoring energy R&D expenditure are divided into the following groups:
Group 01 – Energy Efficiency
Group 02 – Fossil Fuels: Oil, Gas and Coal
Group 03 – Renewable Energy Sources
Group 04 – Nuclear Fission and Fusion
Group 05 – Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
Group 06 - Other Power and Storage Technologies
Group 07 – Other Cross-cutting Thechnologies or Reseach

These seven large groups have their respective subcategories, which in some cases are subdivided into up to 4 levels depending on related technologies, processes and applications, highlighting typical R&D activities.

To learn more about the scope of the energy categories clique aqui.

Low carbon energy technologies - Includes energy sources and transformation technologies with low emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), mainly carbon dioxide (CO2). This classification includes six major groups of the energy technologies: 1. energy efficiency; 3. renewable energies; 4. nuclear fission and fusion; 5. hydrogen and fuel cells; 6. other electrical generation, transmission and storage technologies; 7. cross-cutting (or enabling) technologies; and the subgroup: 2.3 carbon capture and sequestration;